In their study of British hotels, the Department of Employment Manpower Research Unit (1971) identified eight main factors that determine hotel staffing:
• Size of hotel (number of bedrooms, number of beds, number and size of restaurants, etc.) determines the scale and type of operations and the extent to which economies of scale can be achieved. Large hotels tend to have a lower staff/guest ratio than medium-sized hotels and the ratio was also found to be low in smaller owner/managed hotels where the owner and his family usually work longer hours and use fewer workers.
• Ownership may affect staffing by its influence on the scale of operation and through the owner’s attitude to hotelkeeping. Group-owned hotels tend to be larger and a lot of standardized than the freelance hotels, which tend to be more individualistic
• Age and layout of the buildings affects the efficiency of hotel operations and, therefore, the staffing levels. Modern purpose-made hotels with a read to ease and economy of operation will operate with fewer workers than older hotels, that area unit tougher and costly to control.
• Range and type of facilities and services influence the number and type of staff required to provide them. Generally the greater the variety of food and beverage facilities and of other guest services within the hotel, the greater the staffing requirements.
• Methods by which hotel services are provided have a pronounced effect on the number and skills required to provide them. Hotel services may be provided personally by staff or through self-service and other nonpersonal methods with wide variations in required staffing.
• Quality of staff has a bearing on their output and, therefore, on the number of staff required to provide a particular volume and standard of hotel facilities and services. This is a matter of attitude, motivation and training.
• Organization influences the staffing of hotels through the division of tasks and responsibilities, the extent of use of labour-saving equipment, techniques and procedures, and the extent to which specialist contractors and suppliers are used for particular hotel requirements.
• Incidence of demand, annually, weekly and during the day, gives rise to annual, weekly and daily fluctuations in staffing requirements, which can be met to a varying extent by the employment of temporary, casual and part-time staff.